24 Oct

scipio aemilianus

He achieved distinction in the siege of Carthage (146) during the third Punic War and in his campaign in Spain (133). [2] There have been three scenarios proposed for his death: murder, suicide, or suffocation. He acquired the (unofficial) name Numantinus for his reduction of Spanish Numantia (133 bc). After a year of desperate fighting and stubborn heroism on the part of the defenders, he took the city of Carthage, taking prisoner about 50,000 survivors (about one tenth of the city's population.) Homes, Vol 117, No. On his return to Rome he received a Triumph, having also established a personal claim to his adoptive agnomen of Africanus. Polybius emphasized two aspects of Scipio’s character, his personal morality and his generosity. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Scipio-Africanus-the-Younger, Academia - Biography of Scipio Aemilianus, HistoryNet - Biography of Scipio Africanus. The most significant influence on Scipio’s character was his friendship with the Greek historian Polybius, one of the thousand Achaean leaders who had been deported and detained without trial in Italy. The fall of Numantia in 133 established the Roman dominion in the province of Hither Spain. The crowd listening to this comment responded with jeers, to which Scipio quickly replied: "I have never been scared by the shouts of the enemy in arms. Buy Scipio Aemilianus from Kogan.com. He achieved distinction in the siege of Carthage (146) during the third Punic War and in his campaign in Spain (133). He was introduced to military life in 168, when he and his brother served under their father in the Third Macedonian War. 2 (1989), pp. During the winter Scipio again displayed conspicuous ability when Manilius led two unsuccessful expeditions against the Carthaginian forces in the interior. Since he had not opposed Gaius Laelius Sapiens' land reform law, it is likely that he would have supported the concept. According to Polybius, he declared after issuing the order: "It is a grand thing; but I shudder to think that one day someone may give the same order for Rome." Free shipping for many products! [3]. Scipio’s upbringing is described in a passage of Plutarch’s biography of his father, Aemilius Paullus, who. At the decisive Battle of Pydna he followed up the routed enemy with such dash that he was reported missing and was feared killed. In 150 war with Carthage was in the air. Scipio, when he looked upon the city as it was utterly perishing and in the last throes of its complete destruction, is said to have shed tears and wept openly for his enemies. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Scipio Aemilianus by A. E. Astin (2002, Hardcover) at the best online prices at eBay! This book provides an assessment of Scipio Aemilianus as a political figure, in terms both of contemporary politics and of the general political development of the Roman Republic. Scipio Aemilianus will forever be associated with the destruction of Carthage. As consul he commanded at the final siege and destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, and was a leader of the senators opposed to the Gracchi in 133 BC. After being wrapped in thought for long, and realizing that all cities, nations, and authorities must, like men, meet their doom; that this happened to Ilium, once a prosperous city, to the empires of Assyria, Media, and Persia, the greatest of their time, and to Macedonia itself, the brilliance of which was so recent, either deliberately or the verses escaping him, he said: And when Polybius speaking with freedom to him, for he was his teacher, asked him what he meant by the words, they say that without any attempt at concealment he named his own country, for which he feared when he reflected on the fate of all things human. In the crisis, Scipio, who had been assigned to Macedonia, inspired confidence by volunteering to serve in Spain instead; his example was immediately followed by other officers and men. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Thus a great blot on Rome’s good name was at length partially removed. Polybius actually heard him and recalls it in his history. Serving as military tribune to Lucius Lucullus, Scipio displayed great personal courage in the Spanish campaigns; in 151 he killed a Spanish chieftain who had challenged him to single combat, and at Intercatia he won the mural crown (corona muralis), which was awarded to the first man to mount the walls of an enemy town. Again he came into the limelight when the aged Masinissa, on the point of death, asked that the grandson of his friend Africanus arrange the future of his kingdom. Though politically opposed to the Gracchi, he cannot be said to have been a foe to the interests of the people. After the battle, his father put him in charge of the Macedonian royal game preserves in order to develop his strength and courage; his intellectual development was enriched with a legacy of books from the Macedonian royal library. [1] Soon afterwards, in 129 BC, on the morning of the day on which he had intended to make a speech in support of the Italians, he was found dead in bed with marks "allegedly evident" on his body. In 149 BC war was declared by Rome, and a force sent to besiege Carthage. While the elder brother was adopted by a grandson, or possibly a son, of Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator, the famous general of the Second Punic War, Scipio himself was adopted by Publius Scipio, the son of Scipio Africanus the Elder. Third Punic War Part of the Punic Wars The defences of the city of Carthage Date 149–146 BC (4 years) Location Carthaginian territory in modern Tunisia Result Roman victory Destruction of Carthage Belligerents Rome Carthage Commanders and leaders Scipio Aemilianus Manius Manilius Lucius Censorinus Calpurnius Piso Hasdrubal Diogenes Strength 36,000–46,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 20,000 … In 134 BC he was again consul, with the province of Spain, where a demoralized Roman army was vainly attempting the conquest of Numantia on the Durius (Duero) and the closing of the Numantine War. Ward, Allen M., Heichelheim, Fritz M., and Yeo, Cedric A.. (c.185–129 BC), Roman general and politician; full name Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor, adoptive grandson of Scipio Africanus. Scipio achieved public acclaim in 151. These Foreign Words And Phrases Are Now Used In English. Though Carthage had been reduced in power following the Second Punic War, there was still lingering resentment in Rome. He was born the younger son of Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, the conqueror of Macedonia, and fought when he was 17 years old by his father's side at the Battle of Pydna, which decided the fate of Macedonia and made northern Greece subject to Rome. Polybius, however, does not draw attention to an element of cruelty in Scipio’s character that is noticeable in several episodes of his life; it may generally have had a deterrent purpose and not been an unusual trait in the Roman character, but not every Roman general celebrated a victory by throwing deserters to the wild beasts. After the capture of Carthage he gave back to the Greek cities of Sicily the works of art of which Carthage had robbed them. Scipio then left Africa, but he was soon to return not as a peacemaker but as a conqueror. [1] Nonetheless, he was decidedly opposed to the practices of the Gracchi (whose sister Sempronia was his wife). While there he witnessed a great but indecisive battle between Masinissa and the Carthaginians; the latter then asked him to arrange a settlement, but, in the event, negotiations broke down. In 150 he was sent by Lucullus to Africa to obtain some elephants from the Numidian king Masinissa, the friend of his grandfather Africanus. Without the customary procedure of drawing lots, he was assigned to the African theater of war. Does English Have More Words Than Any Other Language? The two consuls besieged Carthage by land and sea, but later in the year, after one had returned to Rome, the Carthaginians launched a night attack upon the camp of the isolated Manilius, a situation that was retrieved only by the skill of Scipio. In the early operations of the war, which went altogether unfavourably for the Romans, Scipio Aemilianus, though a subordinate officer, distinguished himself repeatedly, and in 147 BC he was elected consul, while still under the minimal age required by law to hold this office. Astin suggests that while his biting comments were doubtless appreciated by the crowds, they could have also had the effect of making enemies out of political opponents. In 150 BC an appeal was made to Scipio by the Carthaginians to act as mediator between them and the Numidian prince Massinissa who, supported by a party at Rome, was incessantly encroaching on Carthaginian territory. Professor of Ancient History, King's College, University of London, 1959–70. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He, therefore, was the nephew of Publius Cornelius Scipio's wife, Aemilia Tertia - as Aemilia … Soon after Scipio’s birth, Paullus divorced his wife Papiria, and it was probably after their father’s remarriage that Scipio and his elder brother, Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, were adopted into other families, although both remained in close contact with their natural father. (c.185–129 BC), Roman general and politician; full name Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor, adoptive grandson of Scipio Africanus. At the same time he had all the virtues of an old-fashioned Roman, according to Polybius and Cicero, the latter of whom gives an appreciation of him in his De re publica, in which Scipio Aemilianus is the chief speaker. When it eventually broke out the following year, Scipio returned to Africa with the Roman army, serving again as military tribune, and his service was very effective. Cato the Elder ended every speech, "Also, I think Carthage must be destroyed." Scipio Africanus the Younger, also called Scipio Aemilianus, Latin Scipio Africanus Minor, in full Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Numantinus), (born 185/184 bc —died 129 bc, Rome), Roman general famed both for his exploits during the Third Punic War (149–146 bc) and for his subjugation of Spain (134–133 bc).

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